Kemal Atatürk  (or additionally composed as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha [a] up until 1934, frequently described as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; [b] 1881 [c]-- 10 November 1938), was a Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the creator of the Republic of Turkey, working as its very first President from 1923 till his death in 1938. His good-hearted dictatorship carried out sweeping progressive reforms, which improved Turkey into a nonreligious, commercial nation.Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories ended up being called Kemalism. Due to his military and political achievements, Atatürk is regarded according to research studies as one of the best leaders of the 20th century.
Atatürk pertained to prominence for his role in securing the Ottoman Turkish success at the Battle of Gallipoli (1915) during World War I. Following the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, he led the Turkish National Movement, which withstood mainland Turkey's partition amongst the triumphant Allied powers. Developing a provisionary government in the present-day Turkish capital Ankara, he defeated the forces sent out by the Allies, hence emerging triumphant from what was later referred to as the Turkish War of Independence. He consequently continued to eliminate the run-down Ottoman Empire and proclaimed the foundation of the Turkish Republic in its location.
As the president of the recently formed Turkish Republic, Atatürk initiated a rigorous program of political, economic, and cultural reforms with the supreme objective of developing a modern, progressive and nonreligious nation-state. He made main education totally free and mandatory, opening thousands of brand-new check here schools all over the country. He likewise presented the Latin-based Turkish alphabet, replacing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Turkish females got equal civil and political rights throughout Atatürk's presidency ahead of numerous Western countries.  In specific, women were offered ballot rights in local elections by Act no. 1580 on 3 April 1930 and a couple of years later, in 1934, complete universal suffrage, earlier than many other democracies in the world.
His federal government carried out a policy of Turkicisation, attempting to produce an uniform and unified nation. Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pushed to speak Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and surnames of minorities had to be altered to Turkish renditions. The Turkish Parliament approved him the surname Atatürk in 1934, which means "Father of the Turks", in acknowledgment of the role he played in constructing the contemporary Turkish Republic.  He passed away on 10 November 1938 at Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, at the age of 57 he was been successful as President by his veteran Prime Minister İsmet İnönü  and was honored with a state funeral. His renowned mausoleum in Ankara, built and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor of his popular expression "Peace in the house, Peace on the planet".
In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which stated it The Atatürk Year in the World and embraced the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, explaining him as "the leader of the first struggle offered versus colonialism and imperialism" and a "exceptional promoter of the sense of understanding in between peoples and resilient peace in between the countries of the world which he worked all his life for the development of harmony and cooperation in between peoples without distinction".   Atatürk is honored by lots of memorials and places named in his honor throughout Turkey and the world. Eleftherios Venizelos, former Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk's name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Reward.